1

Certain expressions of a scalar or string type are
defined to be static. Similarly, certain discrete ranges are defined
to be static, and certain scalar and string subtypes are defined to be
static subtypes. [{*static*}
*Static* means determinable at compile time,
using the declared properties or values of the program entities.] {*constant:
See also static*}

1.a

1.b

For an expression to be static, it has to be
calculable at compile time.

1.c

Only scalar and string expressions are static.

1.d

To be static, an expression cannot have any
nonscalar, nonstring subexpressions (though it can have nonscalar constituent
names). A static scalar expression cannot
have any nonscalar subexpressions. There is one exception — a membership
test for a string subtype can be static, and the result is scalar, even
though a subexpression is nonscalar.

1.e

The rules for evaluating static expressions
are designed to maximize portability of static calculations.

2

{*static
(expression)*} A static expression is [a
scalar or string expression that is] one of the following:

3

- a numeric_literal;

3.a

4

- a string_literal of a static string subtype;

4.a

5

- a name that denotes the declaration of a named number or a static constant;

5.a

6

- a function_call
whose
*function_*name or*function_*prefix statically denotes a static function, and whose actual parameters, if any (whether given explicitly or by default), are all static expressions;

6.a

7

- an attribute_reference that denotes a scalar value, and whose prefix denotes a static scalar subtype;

7.a

7.b

An implementation may define the staticness
and other properties of implementation-defined attributes.

8

- an attribute_reference whose prefix statically denotes a statically constrained array object or array subtype, and whose attribute_designator is First, Last, or Length, with an optional dimension;

9

- a type_conversion whose subtype_mark denotes a static scalar subtype, and whose operand is a static expression;

10

- a qualified_expression whose subtype_mark denotes a static [(scalar or string)] subtype, and whose operand is a static expression;

10.a

10.b

11

- a membership test whose simple_expression is a static expression, and whose range is a static range or whose subtype_mark denotes a static [(scalar or string)] subtype;

11.a

12

- a short-circuit control form both of whose relations are static expressions;

13

- a static expression enclosed in parentheses.

13.a

13.b

14

15

- It is a direct_name, expanded name, or character_literal, and it denotes a declaration other than a renaming_declaration; or

16

- It is an attribute_reference whose prefix statically denotes some entity; or

17

- It denotes a renaming_declaration with a name that statically denotes the renamed entity.

17.a

18

18.a

19

- a predefined operator whose parameter and result types are all scalar types none of which are descendants of formal scalar types;

20

- a predefined concatenation operator whose result type is a string type;

21

- an enumeration literal;

22

- a language-defined attribute that is a function, if the prefix denotes a static scalar subtype, and if the parameter and result types are scalar.

23

In any case, a generic formal subprogram is not a
static function.

24

{*static (constant)*}
A *static constant* is a constant view declared
by a full constant declaration or an object_renaming_declaration
with a static nominal subtype, having a value defined by a static scalar
expression or by a static string expression whose value has a length
not exceeding the maximum length of a string_literal
in the implementation.

24.a

24.b

24.c

The length we're talking about is the maximum
number of characters in the value represented by a string_literal,
not the number of characters in the source representation; the quotes
don't count.

25

{*static (range)*}
A *static range* is a range
whose bounds are static expressions, [or a range_attribute_reference
that is equivalent to such a range.] {*static
(discrete_range)*} A *static discrete_range*
is one that is a static range or is a subtype_indication
that defines a static scalar subtype. The base range of a scalar type
is a static range, unless the type is a descendant of a formal scalar
type.

26/2

{*AI95-00263-01*}
{*static (subtype)*} A
*static subtype* is either a *static scalar subtype* or a *static
string subtype*. {*static (scalar subtype)*}
A static scalar subtype is an unconstrained scalar
subtype whose type is not a descendant of a formal scalar
type, or a constrained scalar subtype formed by imposing a compatible
static constraint on a static scalar subtype. {*static
(string subtype)*} A static string subtype
is an unconstrained string subtype whose index subtype and component
subtype are static (and whose type is not a descendant
of a formal array type), or a constrained string subtype formed
by imposing a compatible static constraint on a static string subtype.
In any case, the subtype of a generic formal object of mode **in out**,
and the result subtype of a generic formal function, are not static.

26.a

26.b

26.c

26.d

F :

26.e

--

26.f

X : Integer **range** 1..20;

**procedure** I **is** **new** G(F => X); --* OK.*

26.g

The case_statement
is illegal, because the subtype of F is not static, so the choices have
to cover all values of Integer, not just those in the range 1..10. A
similar issue arises for generic formal functions, now that function
calls are object names.

27

28

- A null constraint is always static;

29

- {
*static (range constraint)*} {*static (digits constraint)*} {*static (delta constraint)*} A scalar constraint is static if it has no range_constraint, or one with a static range;

30

- {
*static (index constraint)*} An index constraint is static if each discrete_range is static, and each index subtype of the corresponding array type is static;

31

- {
*static (discriminant constraint)*} A discriminant constraint is static if each expression of the constraint is static, and the subtype of each discriminant is static.

31.1/2

{*AI95-00311-01*}
In any case, the constraint of the first subtype
of a scalar formal type is neither static nor null.

32

{*statically (constrained)*}
A subtype is *statically constrained* if it
is constrained, and its constraint is static. An object is *statically
constrained* if its nominal subtype is statically constrained, or
if it is a static string constant.

33

A static expression
is evaluated at compile time except when it is part of the right operand
of a static short-circuit control form whose value is determined by its
left operand. This evaluation is performed exactly, without performing
Overflow_Checks. For a static expression that is evaluated:

34

- The expression is illegal if its evaluation fails a language-defined check other than Overflow_Check.

35/2

- {
*AI95-00269-01*} If the expression is not part of a larger static expression and the expression is expected to be of a single specific type, then its value shall be within the base range of its expected type. Otherwise, the value may be arbitrarily large or small.

35.a/2

36/2

- {
*AI95-00269-01*} If the expression is of type*universal_real*and its expected type is a decimal fixed point type, then its value shall be a multiple of the*small*of the decimal type. This restriction does not apply if the expected type is a descendant of a formal scalar type (or a corresponding actual type in an instance).

36.a

36.b/2

37/2

{*AI95-00269-01*}
{*generic contract
issue* [partial]} In addition to the places
where Legality Rules normally apply (see 12.3),
the above restrictions also apply in the private part of an instance
of a generic unit. The last two restrictions
above do not apply if the expected type is a descendant of a formal scalar
type (or a corresponding actual type in an instance).

37.a

37.b

Short-circuit
control forms are a special case:

37.c

N: **constant** := 0.0;

X:**constant** Boolean := (N = 0.0) **or** **else** (1.0/N > 0.5); --* Static.*

X:

37.d

The declaration of X is legal, since the divide-by-zero
part of the expression is not evaluated. X is a static constant equal
to True.

37.e/2

38/2

{*AI95-00268-01*}
{*AI95-00269-01*}
For a real static expression that is not part of a larger static expression,
and whose expected type is not a descendant of a formal scalar
type, the implementation shall round or truncate the value (according
to the Machine_Rounds attribute of the expected type) to the nearest
machine number of the expected type; if the value is exactly half-way
between two machine numbers, the any
rounding shall be performed is
implementation-defined away from zero.
If the expected type is a descendant of a formal scalar
type, or if the static expression appears
in the body of an instance of a generic unit and the corresponding expression
is nonstatic in the corresponding generic body, then no special
rounding or truncating is required — normal accuracy rules apply
(see Annex G).

38.a.1/2

38.a/2

38.b

When the expected type is a descendant of a
formal floating point type, extended precision (beyond that of the machine
numbers) can be retained when evaluating a static expression, to ease
code sharing for generic instantiations. For similar reasons, normal
(nondeterministic) rounding or truncating rules apply for descendants
of a formal fixed point type.

38.b.1/2

{*AI95-00269-01*}
There is no requirement for exact evaluation or
special rounding in an instance body (unless the expression is static
in the generic body). This eliminates a potential contract issue where
the exact value of a static expression depends on the actual parameters
(which could then affect the legality of other code).

38.c

38.d/2

{*AI95-00100-01*}
Note that the only machine numbers values
of a fixed point type are the multiples of the small, so a static conversion
to a fixed-point type, or division by an integer, must do truncation
to a multiple of small. It is not correct for the implementation to do
all static calculations in infinite precision.

38.1/2

{*AI95-00268-01*}
For a real static expression that is not part of
a larger static expression, and whose expected type is not a descendant
of a formal type, the rounding should be the same as the default rounding
for the target system.

38.e/2

NOTES

39

28 An expression can be static even if
it occurs in a context where staticness is not required.

39.a

39.b

X : Float := Float'(1.0E+400) + 1.0 - Float'(1.0E+400);

39.c

The expression is static, which means that the
value of X must be exactly 1.0, independent of the accuracy or range
of the run-time floating point implementation.

39.d

The following kinds of expressions are never
static: explicit_dereference, indexed_component,
slice, **null**, aggregate,
allocator.

40

29 A static (or run-time) type_conversion
from a real type to an integer type performs rounding. If the operand
value is exactly half-way between two integers, the rounding is performed
away from zero.

40.a

40.b

40.c

41

42

1 + 1 *-- 2*

**abs**(-10)*3 *-- 30*

43

Kilo : **constant** := 1000;

Mega :**constant** := Kilo*Kilo; *-- 1_000_000*

Long :**constant** := Float'Digits*2;

Mega :

Long :

44

Half_Pi : **constant** := Pi/2; *-- see 3.3.2*

Deg_To_Rad :**constant** := Half_Pi/90;

Rad_To_Deg :**constant** := 1.0/Deg_To_Rad; *-- equivalent to 1.0/((3.14159_26536/2)/90)*

Deg_To_Rad :

Rad_To_Deg :

44.a

{*extensions to Ada 83*} The
rules for static expressions and static subtypes are generalized to allow
more kinds of compile-time-known expressions to be used where compile-time-known
values are required, as follows:

44.b

- Membership tests and short-circuit control forms may appear in a static expression.

44.c

- The bounds and length of statically constrained array objects or subtypes are static.

44.d

- The Range attribute of a statically constrained array subtype or object gives a static range.

44.e

- A type_conversion is static if the subtype_mark denotes a static scalar subtype and the operand is a static expression.

44.f

- All numeric literals are now static, even if the expected type is a formal scalar type. This is useful in case_statements and variant_parts, which both now allow a value of a formal scalar type to control the selection, to ease conversion of a package into a generic package. Similarly, named array aggregates are also permitted for array types with an index type that is a formal scalar type.

44.g

The rules for the evaluation of static expressions
are revised to require exact evaluation at compile time, and force a
machine number result when crossing from the static realm to the dynamic
realm, to enhance portability and predictability. Exact evaluation is
not required for descendants of a formal scalar type, to simplify generic
code sharing and to avoid generic contract model problems.

44.h

Static expressions
are legal even if an intermediate in the expression goes outside the
base range of the type. Therefore, the following will succeed in Ada
95, whereas it might raise an exception in Ada 83:

44.i

I : Short_Int := -32_768;

44.j

This might raise an exception in Ada 83 because
"32_768" is out of range, even though "–32_768"
is not. In Ada 95, this will always succeed.

44.k

Certain expressions involving string operations
(in particular concatenation and membership tests) are considered static
in Ada 95.

44.l

The reason for this change is to simplify the
rule requiring compile-time-known string expressions as the link name
in an interfacing pragma, and to simplify the preelaborability rules.

44.m

{*incompatibilities with Ada 83*} An
Ada 83 program that uses an out-of-range static value is illegal in Ada
95, unless the expression is part of a larger static expression, or the
expression is not evaluated due to being on the right-hand side of a
short-circuit control form.

44.n

This clause (and 4.5.5,
“Multiplying Operators”) subsumes
the RM83 section on Universal Expressions.

44.o

The existence of static string expressions necessitated
changing the definition of static subtype to include string subtypes.
Most occurrences of "static subtype" have been changed to "static
scalar subtype", in order to preserve the effect of the Ada 83 rules.
This has the added benefit of clarifying the difference between "static
subtype" and "statically constrained subtype", which has
been a source of confusion. In cases where we allow static string subtypes,
we explicitly use phrases like "static string subtype" or "static
(scalar or string) subtype", in order to clarify the meaning for
those who have gotten used to the Ada 83 terminology.

44.p

In Ada 83, an
expression was considered nonstatic if it raised an exception. Thus,
for example:

44.q

Bad: **constant** := 1/0; --* Illegal!*

44.r

was illegal because 1/0 was not static. In Ada
95, the above example is still illegal, but for a different reason: 1/0
is static, but there's a separate rule forbidding the exception raising.

44.s/2

{*AI95-00268-01*}
{*inconsistencies with Ada 95*} **Amendment
Correction:** Rounding of static real expressions is implementation-defined
in Ada 2005, while it was specified as away from zero in (original) Ada
95. This could make subtle differences in programs. However, the original
Ada 95 rule required rounding that (probably) differed from the target
processor, thus creating anomalies where the value of a static expression
was required to be different than the same expression evaluated at run-time.

44.t/2

{*AI95-00263-01*}
{*AI95-00268-01*}
The Ada 95 wording that defined static subtypes
unintentionally failed to exclude formal derived types that happen to
be scalar (these aren't formal scalar types); and had a parenthetical
remark excluding formal string types - but that was neither necessary
nor parenthetical (it didn't follow from other wording). This issue also
applies to the rounding rules for real static expressions.

44.u/2

{*AI95-00269-01*}
Ada 95 didn't clearly define the bounds of a value
of a static expression for universal types and for "any integer/float/fixed
type". We also make it clear that we do not intend exact evaluation
of static expressions in an instance body if the expressions aren't static
in the generic body.

44.v/2

{*AI95-00311-01*}
We clarify that the first subtype of a scalar formal
type has a nonstatic, non-null constraint.

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